2012翻译资格考试笔译实务试题及答案

bet3365验证码登录,Section 1: English-Chinese Translation (英译汉)

(60 point) The time for this section is 100 minutes.

Part A Compulsory Translation (必译题)

(30 points)

It was one of those days that the peasant fishermen on this tributary of
the Amazon River dream about.

With water levels falling rapidly at the peak of the dry season, a giant
school of bass, a tasty fish that fetches a good price at markets, was
swimming right into the nets being cast from a dozen small canoes here.

“With a bit of luck, you can make $350 on a day like this,” Lauro Souza
Almeida, a leader of the local fishermen’s cooperative, exulted as he
moved into position. “That is a fortune for people like us,” he said,
the equivalent of four months at the minimum wage earned by those
fortunate enough to find work.

But hovering nearby was a large commercial fishing vessel, a “mother
boat” equipped with large ice chests for storage and hauling more than a
dozen smaller craft. The crew on board was just waiting for the
remainder of the fish to move into the river’s main channel, where they
intended to scoop up as many as they could with their efficient gill
nets.

A symbol of abundance to the rest of the world, the Amazon is
experiencing a crisis of overfishing. As stocks of the most popular
species diminish to worrisome levels, tensions are growing between
subsistence fishermen and their commercial rivals, who are eager to
enrich their bottom line and satisfy the growing appetite for fish of
city-dwellers in Brazil and abroad.

In response, peasants up and down the Amazon, here in Brazil and in
neighboring countries like Peru, are forming cooperatives to control
fish catches and restock their rivers and lakes. But that effort,
increasingly successful, has only encouraged the commercial fishing
operations, as well as some of the peasants’ less disciplined neighbors,
to step up their depredations.

“The industrial fishing boats, the big 20- to 30-ton vessels, they have
a different mentality than us artisanal fishermen, who have learned to
take the protection of the environment into account,” said the president
of the local fishermen’s union. “They want to sweep everything up with
their dragnets and then move on, benefiting from our work and sacrifice
and leaving us with nothing.”

Part B Optional Translations (二选一)

(30 points)

Topic 1 (选题一)

Ever since the economist David Ricardo offered the basic theory in 1817,
economic scripture has taught that open trade—free of tariffs, quotas,
subsidies or other government distortions—improves the well-being of
both parties. U.S. policy has implemented this doctrine with a
vengeance. Why is free trade said to be universally beneficial? The
answer is a doctrine called “comparative advantage”.

Here’s a simple analogy. If a surgeon is highly skilled both at doing
operations and performing routine blood tests, it’s more efficient for
the surgeon to concentrate on the surgery and pay a less efficient
technician to do the tests, since that allows the surgeon to make the
most efficient use of her own time.

By extension, even if the United States is efficient both at inventing
advanced biotechnologies and at the routine manufacture of medicines, it
makes sense for the United States to let the production work migrate to
countries that can make the stuff more cheaply. Americans get the
benefit of the cheaper products and get to spend their resources on even
more valuable pursuits, That, anyway, has always been the premise. But
here Samuelson dissents. What if the lowerwage country also captures the
advanced industry?

If enough higher-paying jobs are lost by American workers to
outsourcing, he calculates, then the gain from the cheaper prices may
not compensate for the loss in U.S. purchasing power.

“Free trade is not always a win-win situation,” Samuelson concludes. It
is particularly a problem, he says, in a world where large countries
with far lower wages, like India and China, are increasingly able to
make almost any product or offer almost any service performed in the
United States.

If America trades freely with them, then the powerful drag of their far
lower will begin dragging down U.S. average wages. The U.S. economy may
still grow, he calculates, but at a lower rate than it otherwise would
have.

Topic 2 (选题二)

Uganda’s eagerness for genuine development is reflected in its
schoolchildren’s smiles and in the fact that so many children are now
going to school. Since 1997, when the government began to provide
universal primary education, total primary enrollment had risen from 3
million to 7.6 million in 2004. Schools have opened where none existed
before, although there is some way to go in reaching the poorest areas
of the country.

Uganda has also made strides in secondary and higher education, to the
point that it is attracting many students from other countries. At the
secondary level, enrollment is above 700,000, with the private sector
providing the majority if schools. For those who want to take their
education further, there are 12 private universities in addition to the
four publicly funded institutions, together providing 75,000 places.

Education is seen as a vital component in the fight against poverty. The
battle for better health is another, although it is one that will take
longer to win in a country that carries a high burden of disease,
including malaria and AIDS. Here, the solutions can only arise from a
combination of international support and government determination to
continue spending public money on preventive care and better public
health information.

Current government plants include recruiting thousands of nurses,
increasing the availability of drugs and building 200 new maternity
units.

Uganda’s high rate of population growth, at 3.6 percent per annum, poses
a special challenge in the fight against poverty, says Finance Minister
Gerald Ssendaula, who points out that the fertility rate, at 6.9
children per female, is the highest in Africa.

The government’s newly revised Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP)
puts the “restoration of security” at the top of the current government
agenda. This is because it estimates that Uganda has lost 3 percent of
its gross domestic product each year that the conflict has persisted.
Displaced people are not only a financial burden, they are unable to the
economy.

The other core challenges identified by the revised PEAP are finding
ways to keep the lowest income growing, improving the quality of
education, giving people more control over the size of their families
and using public resources transparently and efficiently. It is a
document that other poor countries could learn from.

Section 1: 英译汉 (60分)

Part A (必译题)(30分)

在额尔齐斯河的这一支流上捕鱼的农家就梦想遇上这天的景观。

旱季最缺水的时候,河面连忙下降,一大群鲈鱼正游进从十五只小船上撒下的网里。鲈鱼味道鲜美,能在市面上卖个好价钱。

“尽管运气不错,赶上前几天这种景色,就能挣350韩元,”劳鲁•苏扎•阿尔梅达说道。他是地面渔民合作社的一位官员。他一面喜形于色地说着,一边摆好了姿态准备工作。他说:“对大家这么的人来说,这不过一大笔钱呀。”因为固然一个人运气好,能找到工作,按最低工资总结,要三个月才能挣这多少个钱。

而是就在不远的地方,有一只巨型商业渔船在游弋,这是一只“母船”,备有巨大的窖藏冰箱,还拖着十多只小船。船员都在船上等候,等到剩余的鱼进入河道将来,他们就用高功能的刺网举办捕捞,能捞多少,就捞多少。

黑龙江在世界上是物产充分的标志,到它现在正经受一场超越捕鱼的危机。随着人们最喜爱的各样鱼儿数量日益缩短,到了令人担忧的地步,靠捕鱼为生的渔夫和她俩生意对手之间的浮动关系也日益加剧,因为那个对手完全想着装满自己的船舱,以满意巴西乃至外国城里人越来越大的吃鱼胃口。
针对这种情状,莱茵河沿岸的农民群众,在巴西境内也好,在秘鲁等邻国也好,纷纷确立公司,以求控制捕鱼量,扩大河湖中鱼的数额。但是,这地点的鼎力虽日见功用,却促使这个为生意目的而捕鱼的机构以及隔壁有的不大守规矩的村民加快举行抢劫。

“那多少个工业化的渔船,二、三十吨位的,他们的想法跟我们那么些手工操作的渔家不同等,我们通晓考虑什么尊崇环境,”当地的渔业工会主席说道。“他们想用拖网一网打尽,然后有上别处去打。我们效力,他们获益,弄得大家一无所有。”

Part B 二选一题

(30分)

选题一

自打国学家理嘉图于1817年提议基本理论来说,管工学方面的经文小说都说自由贸易免除关税、限额和补贴,也从没政党的其余小动作,由此会追加双方的功利。美国的方针是努力地实施这一辩护。为啥说自由贸易可以使大家常见获益呢?这足以在所谓“相对优势”的申辩中找到答案。

打个大概的只要,倘诺一位儿科医师,既善于出手术,又会做健康的验血工作,要收获较好的法力,就应让他集中精力做手术,同时雇一个能力较差的技术员去搞化验,因为如此就能让这位妇科医务卫生人员最管用的利用自己的年月。

引申而言,即使美利哥既善于发明高级的生物技术,有精于平时的药物生产,明智的做法如故把药品生产从美利哥改换至生产费用更低的国度。这样,美利坚同盟国人就可以一边因廉价产品盈利,一方面把团结的资源用于从事更有价值的事业。这一贯就是座谈问题的前提。但是现在萨缪尔森却提议了不同的看法。如果低工资国家也了然了先进的家业,如何做?
据他臆度,倘诺把过多的米国工友失去的较高工资的劳作包到外国去,美利坚同盟国从廉价商品的获益不见得能互补它购买力下降导致的损失。

萨缪尔森断言:“自由贸易并不连续一种互赢的范围。”他说,当今世界这一个题目尤为特出。因为像印度和九州如此的大国,他们的薪资低的多,然则他们的力量有在时时刻刻增进,美利坚同盟国能生产的产品,他们几乎都能添丁,花旗国能提供的劳务,他们也几乎都可以提供。

尽管美利坚联邦合众国与那几个国家展开自由贸易,它们低的多的薪资发生的远大影响就会把美利哥的平均工资往下拉。据她推算,美利坚合众国的经济仍然会加强,然而比相应的增长速度要低。

选题二

乌干达渴望得到真正的开拓进取,这种心愿不仅显示在小学生的笑容上,而且还反映在那么多孩子在上学的现实中。自1997年内阁开端推广小学教育以来,小学在校总人数已从300万增至2004年的760万。过去不曾高校的地方,现已开办了学堂,不过要把教育发展到国内最穷困的地点,还要经过一番大力。

乌干达在发展当中教育和高等教育方面也博得了举行,甚至吸引了其他国家的不在少数学员前来学习。在中间教育方面,在校人数现已领先70万,大多数院校是独资的。如有学生想延续攻读,除4家公立大学外,还有12家独资高校,共7.5万个名额。人们觉得教育是制伏贫困的首要一环,努力增强体质也是最紧要的一环。但是,乌干达饱受病痛的拉扯,如疟疾、生殖器疱疹等,增强体质绝非一日之功。在这上面,要解决问题,必须一方面靠国际援救,一方面政坛要下决心,继续拨款预防疾病,并提升宣传公共卫生知识。

眼下政党计划囊括招聘数千名护理人士,扩张药品供应,新建200所男科诊所。

财政院长杰拉尔德•森达乌拉说,乌干达人口的年增长率为百分之3.6,这样高的增长率对消除贫困构成异常障碍。他还提出,乌干达平均每个女性生6.9孩子,这一生育率是全亚洲最高的。

内阁不久前修订过的《消除贫穷行动计划》将“恢复生机安全”列为政党近年来的首要任务。这是因为它估计连年不断的争辩已使乌干达的国内生产总值每年下降3个百分点。流离失所的人们不仅仅是财政方面的承受,也不可以为发展经济效力。

修订过的《消除贫困行动计划》列举的此外重大事项还包括设法不断增高最低收入,革新教育质料,匡助人们最好地操纵家庭人口,透明而卓有效用地动用公共资源等。这一文件值得另外贫困国家借鉴。

Section 2: Chinese- English Translation(汉译英)

(40 point)
The time for this section is 80 minutes.

Part A Compulsory Translation (必译题)

(20 points)

矿产资源是自然资源的严重性组成部分,是人类社会提升的严重性物质基础。中国是社会风气上最早开发应用矿产资源的国家之一。过去50年,中国在矿产资源勘探开发方面获取巨大成就。这为华夏经济的无休止、疾速、健康发展提供了根本保障。
中国政坛低度重视可持续发展和矿产资源的创制运用,把可持续发展确定为国家战略性,把珍视资源作为可持续发展战略的重点内容。
中国是一个人口众多、资源相对紧缺的发展中国家。中国根本借助本国的矿产资源来维系现代化建设的需要。同时,中国又主动推荐外国资本和技术开发中国矿产资源,利用外国市场与海外矿产资源,并矢志不渝促进中国矿山公司和矿产品进入国际市场。

Part B Optional Translations (二选一)

(20 points)

Topic 1(选题一)

肯定,鸟无翅膀无法飞,人无双腿无法走。但对尹小星而言,鸟无翅膀无法飞,人无双腿却能走!

1970年落地于浙江一户农家家庭的尹小星,出生仅8个月就患小儿麻痹症并发急性肺水肿。即使最终保住了命,他却再也无法站立。因为身躯残疾,初中毕业后小星不得不辍学。生存的下压力对她的话显得煞是沉重,他贩过水果,养过鸡,还下功夫学习过中医。

在他21岁的时候,这个小伙竟怀揣一幅地图,手持一个指南针,摇着轮椅踏上了走遍全中国的困顿路途。

近21年来小星手摇轮椅,足迹遍布31省、市、自治区,行程7万多公里,用坏了4部轮椅。他实现了徒手攀登黄山、龙虎山、骊山等20多座名山,孤身翻越海拔5231米的唐古拉山,手摇轮椅走过天鹅绒之路,穿越塔克拉玛干(Taklimakan)大戈壁,徒手攀登上长治方明珠电视机塔,圆满成功从沙漠到香岛的远足。

Topic 2 (选题二)

万里长城是社会风气一大奇迹。现在,每年都有几百万人到长城旅游。在旺季,几处最资深的光景总是让成群结队的旅游者挤得水泄不通。

中华人修筑城墙的野史悠长,可以追溯到有穷时期。历史上,中国共修过大约20座长城。在富有这个长城中,明长城最长,达到6700公里。在即时,中国技巧在世界上处于抢先地位,因此明长城的构造也是最复杂的。明长城的建造是为了对抗北方游牧民族的侵扰。

梁国创设后,由于它的建立者本身也是游牧民族,他们认为没有必要继续修建长城。然则,清政党依旧宣布法令对长城进行维护,禁止拆砖。然则,岁月的蹉跎和连续战乱使人人易到之处遭到了惨重的毁伤。
十几年来,蓬勃发展的旅游业促进了长城的整治工程。方今,多乡长城业已修复,或正在修补中。

Section 2: 汉译英

(40分)

Part A (必译题)

(20分)
Mineral resources are an important part of natural resources and an
important material foundation for the development of human society.
China is one of the first countries in the world to develop and utilize
resources.

Over the past five decades, China has made great achievements in the
survey and development of its mineral resources. This has provided an
important guarantee for the sustained, rapid and sound development of
the Chinese economy. The Chinese Government attaches great importance to
sustainable development and the rational utilization of mineral
resources. It has made sustainable development a national strategy and
the protection of resources an important part of this strategy.

China is developing country with a large population and a relative
shortage of resources. It depends mainly on the exploitation of its own
mineral resources to meet the needs of its modernization program.
Meanwhile, it has made energetic efforts to introduce foreign capital
and technology to exploit its own resources, make use of foreign markets
and foreign mineral resources, and strive to help its own mining
enterprises and mineral products to enter the international market.

Part B 二选一题 (30分)

选题一

As everyone knows, birds cannot fly without wings and a person cannot
walk without legs. But for Yin Xiaoxing, while birds cannot fly without
wings, a person can walk even without legs!

Born in 1970 into a farmer’s family in Jiangsu Province, Yin Xiaoxing
suffered from polio and acute pneumonia at the age of only eight months.
He survived but lost the ability to stand on his feet. Because of his
disability, Xiaoxing had to give up his study after junior middle
school. The burden of life seemed to be especially heavy for him. He
tried to make a living by selling fruits, raising chickens and taking
pains to learn traditional Chinese medicine.

At the age of 21, this young man, with a map and a compass in hand,
embarked on the hard journey of traveling around China in his
wheelchair.

In the last 12 years, Yin Xiaoxing traveled a total of 70,000 kilometers
in his wheelchair and left his footprints in 31 provinces,
municipalities and autonomous regions. During this period, he wore out
four wheelchairs. He left a trail of human records including climbing
more than 20 famous mountains like Mont Tai, Mount Hua and Mount Heng
with his hands, crossing the 5,231-meter-high Mount Tanggula alone,
traveling along the Silk Road in wheelchair, crossing the Taklimakan
Desert, getting to the top of the Oriental Pearl TV Tower in Shanghai
with his hands, and completing the journey from the desert to Hong Kong.

选题二

The Great Wall is a wonder of the world. Now, millions of people journey
to the Great Wall each year, making its most popular sites besieged by
hordes of tourists during busy seasons.

The Chinese have a long history of building walls, dating from the
Warring States period. In history, about 20 walls were built, with the
wall constructed during the Ming Dynasty being the longest, extending
6,700 km. China was the most technologically advanced nation in the
world then, so the wall was also the most sophisticated in structure. It
was built to ward off the invasion of nomads from the north.

After the establishment of the Qing Dynasty, since its founders were
themselves nomads, they did not see a need to continue with wall
building. Nonetheless, the Qing government did institute a law to
preserve the wall, banning the removal of bricks from it. But, the
impact of time and continuous wars have left the wall greatly damaged in
its most accessible sections.

Over the past 10-plus years, the booming tourist industry has stimulated
the Great wall’s renovation project. Now, many of its sections have been
or are being revamped.

相关文章

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注